That sport and exercise are important for children is nothing new
Children feed a large part of their pocket money
According to the survey, the money among the nine to 13-year-olds is mainly spent on sweets (63 percent), comics and magazines (44 percent), drinks (36 percent) and ice cream (35 percent). 27 percent of kids invest in toys and games, 19 percent in trading cards and stickers, and 15 percent in cinema tickets. 13 percent have to pay for their mobile phone costs with their pocket money.
Every second ten year old is on the Internet every day
After years of rapid growth, tendencies towards saturation can be seen on the subject of computer and Internet consumption. In the age group of six and over, the number of children with computer access stagnates at 80 percent at a high level. The situation is very similar when it comes to Internet use: 74 percent of the youngsters have online experience – as much as in 2011.
However, Internet use is increasing among those over ten. Almost every second person is online almost every day. Four to five year olds are also familiar with computers (23 percent) or surf the Internet (14 percent).
Despite computers: books don’t die out
According to the study, this is not at the expense of traditional media. There is still hardly a child or young person who does not at least occasionally turn to printed stories. A constant 96 percent of six to 13-year-olds are concerned with magazines, 91 percent of the total of 6.04 million young Germans in this age group read books.
For the annual survey, experts conducted more than 2000 interviews with children and adolescents and their parents in February and March of this year. According to the publisher, the kids’ consumer analysis on consumer and media behavior, which was published for the 20th time, is the leading one of its kind.
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It is not a new discovery that sport and exercise are important for children. However, this thesis was only recently examined scientifically by the University of Bern in a study on school sport and its influence on children’s personality development. The results support the fact that sport is important for the development of a child’s character, but the study also makes it clear that such positive effects only occur under certain conditions.
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Sport plays a key role as a school subject
The education ministries of all federal states emphasize in their curricula the key educational role that sport is the only compulsory physical activity subject. "School sports should", as the Hessian curriculum puts it, "Arouse the joy of movement and community sports in all children and young people and convey the insight that continuous sports combined with a healthy lifestyle have a positive effect on their physical, social and mental development. At the same time, sport in school should promote and consolidate skills such as fairness, tolerance, team spirit, assessing one’s own performance and motivation." An empirical study by the University of Bern among Swiss schoolchildren has now examined for the first time whether these educational goals can actually be achieved.cultural studies essay topics
The focus was on the pupils’ self-image
The head of studies and director of the sports institute, Achim Conzelmann, and his team observed pupils from the fifth grade twice for ten weeks: "We tested a total of 23 school classes. Six classes had conventional lessons as a comparative norm. In 17 other classes, the lessons were divided into different focuses. The teacher was instructed to observe the behavior of each individual and to reflect on this with him and finally in the class."
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The focus of the study was the self-image of the students and the question of how their self-assessment changes when the teacher repeatedly intervenes and the children regularly question their own performance and their actions. "It was not about assessing academic performance, which is more related to subjects such as math or bio", says Conzelmann. "We were interested in the children’s social, emotional and physical self-concept. We found that sport does not shape character per se, but that only certain types of sport also promote certain personality traits. This is similar to the activation of various muscles in the body: If you run long distances, you shouldn’t expect to get biceps like a wrestler."
Team sports promote key social skills
The researchers were able to observe the students’ social skills particularly well in team sports such as football or handball and in sports games. It turned out that the game itself did not promote the ability to be companionable, tolerant or fair. "It was only through frequent reflection and critical self-examination that these social characteristics of the children were optimized", explains Achim Conzelmann. As a result, they were constantly learning and at some point were able to regulate the game themselves according to the rules of fairness and camaraderie.
The tools for critical reflection were either "Exercise books", in which the children regularly wrote down their self-assessment and then questioned their point of view in conversation with the teacher, or video cameras with which games were recorded and analyzed. However, the latter only works if the game is interrupted more often than usual for criticism. "Such time-outs have proven themselves especially in popular sports like football", explains the study director. "A short intervention is often enough. If an intermediate remark such as ‘Friends remember that Felix hasn’t had the ball for ten minutes’ indicates a negative situation, that’s enough food for thought for the children and takes them a step further on the subject of camaraderie."
Acrobatics and climbing train emotional skills
In order to promote the ability of the students to correctly assess their fears or their courage, the sports scientists chose disciplines in which it is also important to allow help and trust others. "Acrobatic exercises such as balancing and secured climbing on a wall were ideal here. Or the children should let themselves fall blindly backwards from a pedestal into the arms of others", describes Conzelmann. In this way the students practiced taking a calculable risk, jumping over their shadows and dealing with their feelings. These learning steps were repeated many times and through the "Before and after reflection" discussed with the teacher.
Children should measure their performance against themselves
The third pillar of the study was physical performance. This was tested primarily in endurance and strength training as well as in high jumps and hurdles. Here, too, the students kept records and compared their self-assessment with their actual performance in feedback discussions. The most important: "The comparison with classmates should always be avoided. That’s not a good foundation", says study director Conzelmann. "Children should learn to measure themselves only against themselves. That is the only way to get ahead. You have to ask yourself: how high did I jump today compared to yesterday? And not: Did I jump higher than Felix today?"
Not everyone can teach sports
The conclusions of the scientists confirm the age-old thesis that sport can have a personality-building effect, but this only works under certain circumstances: "Only through a professional differentiation, as we have done it, and through intensive reflection with the teachers, is it possible to promote the child’s personality in its development"Conzelman concludes. The children of the 17 classes, in whom the self-assessment was always worked on, were all positive after the study: They acted more motivated, more playful, more skillful and more self-confident than those who did "normal" were taught.
Because of these results, the role of the educator is more important than ever for Conzelmann: "You shouldn’t think that anyone can teach any sport. Good sports teachers, as well as club coaches, play a key role in children’s development. You teach in a very broad subject that can do more than other school disciplines." Because only in sport, as the head of the study summarizes, can social skills, empathic behavior, emotional values and motivation be trained at the same time and a holistic positive self-image conveyed using the appropriate methods. These are learning effects that can be formative for life.
If students dread physical education, parents should ask exactly why. “During puberty, young people in particular may have inhibitions about showing themselves with their own bodies, some do not feel well,” explains Maria Große Perdekamp, head of online advice at the Federal Conference for Educational Advice (bke).
With younger children it is often actually more about fear, for example because they are not very good at some things in physical education. “Then it is important that the parents positively motivate the child to move,” says Große Perdekamp. It often helps to offer sports outside of school, such as swimming, inline skating or sports in a club. “That makes you fitter and also more confident.”
Sometimes, however, there is also another problem behind the fear of sport: For example, group games in physical education often show when a child is excluded from the class. But even then, parents should look carefully and not rush to help out with certificates. Even then, for example, a hobby in a sports club can help: The child has more fun in sports, becomes more self-confident and gets to know friends outside of school.
Emojis, no big formalities, and you can dawdle with the answer: What is possible in private chat has no place in the exchange with the boss. Instead, experts advise haste and formality. You don’t have to do without smileys entirely.
Talking like a beak: Most people use this principle in chats or in private e-mails. You don’t take it too seriously with the spelling, instead there are smileys, and salutation and farewell are then also rather unimportant. What is still okay in the family or with friends can quickly appear inappropriate at work – especially if the boss is at the other end of the line. Which rules apply to electronic communication in the office?
Tips and tricks: Application: Tips for an attractive cover letter Sad everyday life: Sexual harassment at work: What those affected can do About a cup of water: Warnings – and what you can do about it "Careless spelling is like going to the office without a shower"says coach and etiquette expert Elisabeth Bonneau. If you don’t send a pile of letters to your colleagues or even the boss by email or in the chat, you show your respect. In addition, you are more likely to be respected yourself. "The spelling also helps make it easier to understand", says Bonneau – and therefore recommends paying attention to upper and lower case as well as punctuation. Salutation among colleagues: In the first e-mail or message, one should not do without the salutation. "This is considered very rude in Germany"says Bonneau. Two exceptions: You send someone additional information during a phone call, or the e-mails go back and forth in a short time. Within a company, salutations are like "Rather…" or "Hi there" Salutation to the supervisor: Especially in conservative companies and industries, special rules apply when there are major differences in status. A trainee in a bank should have the head of department with you "Dear…" write, advises Bonneau. If the head of department replies to the polite and formal variant, the trainee should stick with it in the further course of the email – otherwise he may adjust the salutation. It is similar with titles: if someone has a doctor or professor, you should write to them with them, advises Bonneau. This applies even if the person waives the degree or title in his closing formula. "Appropriate to the addressee" is the keyword here, says Bonneau. "If the boss sends a ‘Have a nice evening’ with a glass of red wine, you can use an emoji yourself", she says. "Otherwise you better keep your hands off it." But emojis have no place in official documents, warns consultant and coach Anne Forster. Otherwise, it should be a smiley. "That doesn’t necessarily seem unprofessional, especially if you know each other." It can even be useful: "Emojis affect how what is said is perceived."Speed: "24 hours to respond is the upper limit"says Forster. That applies to emails, not to chats. Because these often replace personal contact and therefore, in principle, require an immediate answer. Bonneau sees it similarly: one should answer "as quickly as possible". Sometimes, however, it is less of a hurry: for example, when someone writes that they need something by 2 p.m. tomorrow. It is enough to do a short one during the day "OK" to answer. And of course the status of the sender also plays a role: Answers to the boss usually take precedence. Private: The employer is free to prohibit private matters at work and during working hours, says Nathalie Oberthür, specialist lawyer for labor law. It is irrelevant whether you discuss private matters with external people or with colleagues.