At the same time, the UN member states have drawn up a global pact for refugees

The software can, for example, be designed to like or distribute posts on Facebook or Twitter. These can be entries selected by the bot clients – or those with certain keywords. Some call them opinion robots. In addition, bot software can give the impression of a debate if Twitter or Facebook profiles controlled by it interact with one another. Theoretically, you can bring certain topics into the trend rankings, for example on Twitter – but this would require a large-scale campaign with tens of thousands of manipulated accounts.

Whether and to what extent public debates can be influenced is a matter of dispute among experts. Many assume that friends and family play a much more important role in forming personal opinions.

There is also no uniform definition of what a "Social bot" is. Often the apparently automated opinion-making is a concerted action by activists or interest groups who use popular tools from social media marketing to get their message across. 

A study by the company "Botswatch"from which the newspaper "The world" recently quoted, had already come under fire for this reason. The report had suggested that the debate about the migration pact was largely shaped by automated Twitter bots. Numerous experts doubted this and asked Botswatch to disclose the study method. 

Bots should be labeled

Nonetheless, politicians from the SPD and the Greens were also open to the proposal by CDU politician Brinkhaus. "Anyone who uses bots should be legally obliged to label them so that users of social networks know who they are dealing with"said the network policy spokesman for the SPD in the Bundestag, Jens Zimmermann "FAS". In the event of violations, he spoke in favor "Means of sanctioning" off, like a fine. This was also supported by Zimmerman’s Green colleague Tabea Rößner: "Everyone has the right to know whether they are communicating with another person or a machine." In addition, networks would have to block bot accounts if they are not marked.

Unwanted: Twitter intensifies the fight against spam accountsMaking up the mood on the net: Social bots incite against the migration pactTrump supporters outraged: Twitter blocks thousands of suspicious accounts

Fearing disruption to the European elections, the EU Commission announced at the beginning of December that it would intensify the fight against false news and propaganda on the Internet. To this end, the funds for an already existing analysis group are to be doubled, the measures of the EU countries are to be better bundled and the social networks are to be made responsible. These should take action against millions of false accounts and identify bots. The networks should report by the end of December and then monthly.to kill a mockingbird analysis essay

Sources used: dpa news agency

The United Nations recently passed the Migration Pact, now another agreement follows with the Refugee Pact. The German AfD condemns him as "irresponsible".

One week after the controversial UN migration pact was adopted in Morocco, the United Nations agreed on another pact – this time on dealing with refugees. 181 of the 193 member states voted in favor of the paper in the General Assembly on Monday. Only the US and Hungary voted against. Three countries abstained, the other countries stayed away from the meeting.

The pact aims to give refugees better access to schools, work and health care, among other things. Like the Migration Pact, it is not legally binding, but is intended to oblige states politically. The aim is to provide better support to the largest host countries. According to the UN, most of the refugees live in Turkey, Pakistan, Uganda and Lebanon. Germany is also one of the ten countries that take in the most refugees worldwide.

Right-wing parties reject the pact

Representatives of right-wing parties and camps had in part raised the mood against the agreement. Nationalists, populists and right-wing extremists have spread false information about the pact, said the Norwegian Refugee Aid (NRC). The pact is an attempt to escape people "civilized and with some sense" to protect, tweeted NRC Secretary General Jan Egeland.

Quickly explained: Why the UN is still deciding on a refugee pact

In Germany, the AfD attacked the refugee pact after a sharp debate about the migration pact. The right-wing populists warned of "irresponsible plans". Urgent applications to the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe to prevent the German acceptance of both pacts had previously failed.

According to UN figures, there were 68.5 million refugees worldwide at the end of 2017, around 40 million of whom were displaced in their own country.

Sources used: dpa-AFX news agency

After the second round of the Islam Conference, Federal Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble was extremely satisfied with the discussion. "We all agreed that this process is right, and it is progressing well too," said Schäuble on Wednesday after the meeting in Berlin. It was partly argued, but above all was intensely discussed.

Council represents "only around ten to 15 percent"With a view to the dispute over the recognition of the newly founded Coordination Council of Muslims as a contact for politics, Schäuble said that an organization that only represents around ten to fifteen percent of Muslims in Germany could not demand that no other association speak for the Muslims may. Overall, however, he welcomed the Coordination Council as "a step in the right direction".

Graphic cracks in the entablature Islam conference before the second meeting"Integration of Islam" Muslims demand equality"Important step" German Muslims found umbrella organization

Ayyub Koehler criticizes "aimless" The Central Council of Muslims considers the organization of the Islam Conference to be insufficient. "It cannot go on like this, simply debating aimlessly"said the chairman of the Central Council of Muslims in Germany, Ayyub Axel Köhler, on Wednesday after the second German Islam Conference in Berlin. A common plan for the future is needed. Köhler calls for Islam to be legally equated with other religious communities. Schäuble rejects this and argues with the inconsistency of Islam in Germany and the large number of Muslims who are not represented by the Coordination Council.

Toprak: Basic Law Sufficient as Social Contract The General Secretary of the Alevi Community of Germany, Ali Ertan Toprak, called for a political culture of mutual recognition. There is already a joint social contract with the Basic Law. But the Islam Conference is already a success.

Do not lump Muslims together Toprak also called on the Germans to recognize the differences within the Islamic communities. The Alevis represented by Toprak make up 30 to 35 percent of the Turkish population. They are known for their liberal way of life. Alevi women are unveiled and equal to men. In addition, the Alevis, who have their origins in Shiite Islam, advocate humanism, universalism and a strict separation of state and religion.

Liberal calls for clear commitments Dentist Ezhar Cezairli had already called for more transparency from the coordination council before the conference. The combined associations should openly state what they are demanding in Germany, said Cezairli on Wednesday on Deutschlandradio Kultur. "What about the equality of men and women in society, what about when it comes to sports and swimming lessons for girls, who should organize religious education"said Cezairli.

Take an honest position"Such things, they have to say very clearly and honestly what they think of them. These issues usually lead to conflicts." Like Schäuble, Cezairli criticizes that the coordination council does not represent the majority of Muslims in Germany.

His governing coalition had recently burst in the dispute over migration policy. Now the Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel resigns – because of new pressure.

Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel has announced his resignation. However, after a conversation with Michel on Tuesday evening, King Philippe did not immediately decide whether to accept the resignation. Shortly before, the Social Democrats, with the support of the Greens, had put a motion of no confidence in parliament. With him, Michel was supposed to be asked to change his political course within 48 hours.

The background to the announced resignation is a ten-day government crisis. The nationalist regional party N-VA from the Flemish-speaking north of the country had left the government a week and a half ago because the francophone liberal Michel wanted to travel to Marrakech to approve the UN migration pact.

Michel has so far rejected new elections

Michel then went on with a minority government. His liberal reform movement (Mouvement Réformateur / MR), together with the Flemish Liberals Open VLD and the Christian Democrats (CD&V) however only 52 of the 150 parliamentary seats. Michel refused an early election. In May 2019 there will be regular elections in Belgium anyway. 

Trouble over UN migration pact: government in Belgium falls apart

 The UN migration pact was adopted last Monday by delegations from more than 150 countries at a conference in Marrakech, Morocco. This is the first time that global guidelines for international migration policy have been agreed. In Germany, the AfD faced a loss of national sovereignty and a "Acceleration and multiplication of immigration" warned. At the same time, the UN member states have one "Global Compact for Refugees" Developed.

Sources used: dpa news agency

Marrakech (dpa) – Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) has warned against calling into question the international approach to global crisis resolution with the heated dispute over the UN migration pact.

T-Online.de/TV

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Illegal migration causes some very great fears, said Merkel on Monday in her speech after the adoption of the pact at a UN conference in Marrakech. "These fears are now being used by the opponents of this pact to spread hoaxes. But at the core of the dispute about this pact and its importance is the principle of multilateral cooperation."

Previously, delegations from more than 150 countries had adopted the negotiated document on better order for international migration. It must be the claim of the international community to regulate migration issues legally and to fight illegal migration together to protect citizens, said Merkel. Only international cooperation and not national solo efforts would solve these problems.

Beijing attacks Australia: when will China hit "naked aggression" Germany?

With the UN Migration Pact, global guidelines for international migration policy were agreed for the first time. On this basis, cooperation between the countries is to be improved in order to take action against illegal and disorderly migration and to make migration safer.

The paper is not legally binding and is intended – as with other agreements – to develop its force through the political declaration of intent of its members. After it has been adopted in Marrakech, it still has to be formally approved by the UN General Assembly in January.

After the agreement was passed, Merkel spoke of a milestone in international politics for dealing with migration. The pact clearly declares war on illegal migration and combats smugglers, for example. Migration is a natural process "and if it’s legal, fine too"said Merkel. This is how labor migration creates prosperity in Germany too.

Fierce international debates had sparked off over the past few weeks about the UN Migration Pact. Although the paper explicitly emphasizes the sovereignty of the member states, some countries fear for their national sovereignty. Several governments have rejected the paper in recent weeks – including Hungary, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Australia, Slovakia and Israel. The USA did not even take part in the specific negotiations.

In Germany, the AfD had sparked a sharp debate about the migration pact. The right-wing populists warned of a loss of national sovereignty and one "Acceleration and multiplication of immigration".

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